Why did you choose this lesson?
I chose to adapt this series of lessons to reflect the implementation of the NYS Social Studies Framework in grade 11. Within the Framework, the Conceptual Understanding, 11.5 Industrialism and Urbanization contains a massive amount of information therefore providing students with an opportunity to examine the content in greater depth. In adapting the lesson the focus was on using historical thinking and CCLS skills students need in order to be college and career ready. Based on student’s strengths and weaknesses, this lesson focuses on student’s abilities to establish claims and support those claims with evidence. Using a variety of primary and secondary source documents, students were enabled to deepen their understanding of the topic through student centered tasks and guidance in order to make connections between how the past legislation like the Pure Food and Drug Act influences the agencies that monitor food consumption today.
Which instructional shifts did you incorporate in this lesson? Please describe what these shifts mean to you in your own words (how did you make sense of them)?
This lesson incorporates all of the pedagogical shifts demanded by the New York State Learning Standards. Included below are examples of how implemented the shifts:
- Identification and analysis of content specific language or language specific to the document;
- Completing multiple readings of a complex text and adding multiple layers of understanding. For example, one reading focuses on listening to the ideas that are being presented to the listener/reader; re-reading to locate terms/phrases that are unfamiliar or repeating; isolating quotes surrounding terms and phases to assist in the defining of terms/ phrases;
- Pre-reading questions to identify key words or phrases that correspond with information located in the text;
- Solidifying text-based responses; identifying main and supporting themes to analyze causes and effects.
- Gathering and evaluating multiple relevant sources to gain a deeper understanding
Did you struggle with this lesson-creation process? Please be specific.
This lesson has taken on four different versions, based upon the needs of students and time management. The writing process for the initial lesson was about 15-20 hours to complete this series of lessons. These lessons are not possible without collaboration as working with my ELA partner has proven an assist when identifying where student’s skills are and where we would like them to be.
Revision 1: Multiple- Texts
This series of lessons has been transformed from the focus on one text, to the use of multiple –texts. Here students are looking at The Jungle (excerpts), How the Other Half Lives and Dies in NYC (excerpts), Gospel of Wealth (excerpts) and TIME: The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire: A Lasting Legacy, 100 Year Later. Also added are web resources for students to investigate gaining to gain a deeper understanding of the effects of reformers and muckrakers. Resources were added to this assignment in order to reflect changes in the NYS Social Studies Framework, where students are now being asked to make connections using said events, topics and legislation, and how they not only impacted Americans during a specific time period, but if they are relevant today.
Revision 2: Claims and Evidence
These lessons included the concepts of “Claims” and “Evidence” across the ELA and Social Studies classrooms with the expectations and outcomes related to the products for each class are clearly communicated. This concept continues with assessing student work, the collaboration with the ELA teacher enabled us to develop rubrics that addressed both ELA and Social Studies requirements, and sharing the jointly developed rubrics with our students provided them with clear and consistent expectations.
Revision 3: Student Centered
Students continued to answer scaffolding questions for the two main sources (The Jungle and How the Other Half Lives) in order to understand the context of what industrial and urbanization was like during the early 1900s. After the completion of these questions students completed a graphic organizer that asked students to use their information for each source to (1) Develop a claim that responds to the impact of industrialization and urbanization on American Society and (2) Using evidence from reading to support the claim. This process allowed students to re-read, reflect and respond through guidance, opposed to more of a teacher centered approach.
Revision 4: Argument
The use of argument is being experimented with in these lessons. The assessment went from a thematic line of questioning revolving around historical circumstances and impacts to an actual analysis and synthesis of “Were the actions taken by muckrakers and reformers successful in bringing about political and social change.” Students will still need to provide evidence that discusses the historical circumstances and impact, but additionally, they must use evidence to prove that the actions of muckrakers and reformers were successful. By allowing students to use evidence to defend their claim regarding success, they are empowered to present a historical period or event in a different context.
What were your expectations for student success resulting from this lesson? Please connect these expectations to your knowledge of your students, their behavior patterns, and your confidence that this could work.
Students were expected to establish claims and use evidence to support them from The Jungle, How the Other Half Lives, TIME: The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire: A Lasting Legacy, 100 Year Later and be able, through research, to investigate the success of the muckrakers and reformers. I was confident that students could establish claims and support them with evidence; the application of research to evaluate the successes of the muckrakers and reformers was a true test. In order to assist students in accomplishing this task they worked in pairs to review their claims and evidence. Then students used pre-selected web resources to evaluate the success of the muckrakers and reformers, this was challenging because too often students wanted to respond by defining the legislation or government actions that were passed; instead of examining the legislation or government action for the purpose of it being successful in prompting political or social change. This did not occur naturally and therefore took some whole group discussion to complete the evaluation of evidence from the web resources.
What worked in terms of implementation of this lesson?
When implementing these lessons, the issue of time was a factor. Often scaffolding was either provided or eliminated for students based on their needs. In order for these lessons to be successful, students need an appropriate amount of time to digest the information they provided with in order to reach a deeper understand of the content and connections. The majority of students were successful with the scaffolding questions, establishing claims and supporting their claims with evidence. Students struggled and needed more time with evaluation of evidence and how it applied to the “bigger picture.” Originally these lessons were scheduled to take 1-5 days, when in actuality it was more like 7 (when taking into consideration the argument essay.)
What adjustments did you make to the lesson based on using it in your classroom? Please be specific: your instructional approach, selection of materials, timing for activities, etc.?
Adjustments have been made to this lesson due to the shifts that have occurred within the Social Studies Framework. Students are diving into the topic, through the examination of documents and using that as the foundation of their claims. This practice is efficient in assisting students with a review of concepts and enables them to make connections to the Progressive Era and the political and social changes that occurred.
- Students were asked to identify and determine the impacts of industrialism on urbanization through the use of scaffolding questions based on an excerpt from The Gospel of Wealth
- Questions and text were chunked based on student ability as well as students being placed in groups to complete multiple readings with the text.
- In pairs students used scaffolding questions to complete graphic organizers that focused on claims and evidence to support how each document represented the relationship between industrialism, immigration and urbanization.
- Classroom discussion took place to assist students in identifying issues that were present in How the Other Half Lives and Dies in New York, The Jungle, TIME: The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire: A Lasting Legacy, 100 Year Later. as well as the government’s response to resolving those issues. Students then investigated the legislative response to the actions of muckrakers and reformers, while also evaluating the success of (reformers and muckrakers) actions to bring about political and social change.
- The questions were modified from "description" to "analytical” and with the addition of primary source documents students are able to examine the historical circumstances, actions and impacts to incite social change during the Progressive Era.
- Additional materials are provided to assist students in examining multiple relevant sources to gain a deeper understanding of the topic.
- iPads were available for use when doing the brief research component for this lesson. The iPads provided the additional text that was needed, as students would be hand writing their responses as opposed to using word processing/typed response.
Timing of Activities:
1. Timing was a factor when the class reached the reporting out stages, as not all members were "ready" to move on, however, we were able to overcome this obstacle through pair sharing.
2. Timing was also a factor with the research. For this component, an entire 42 minute class period would have been more appropriate.